did technology affect the outcome of ww1 (world war 1)
Focus: world war one technology contribution
World War I, also called First World War or Great War was an international conflict that embroiled most of the nations of Europe along with Russia, the United States, the Middle East, and other regions between 1914-1918. The war pitted Germany,Austria-Hungary, and Turkey(The Central Powers) against France, Great Britain, Russia, Italy, Japan, and, from 1917, the United States(The Allies). It stalemated with the defeat of the Central Powers. The war was virtually unprecedented in the slaughter, carnage, and destruction it caused.
One could characterize the earlier years of the World War I as a battle between 20th-century technology with 19th-century military science creating shoddy battles with huge numbers of casualties on both ends. Below are some of the technological outcomes of these Great War, World War I as the list is enormous.
Air traffic control
The world war I brought about the application of Air Traffic Control. In the early days of flight, just as the plane leaves the ground the pilot will be pretty much isolated from the terrestrial world, unable to receive any information or signal barring from obvious signals using flags or lamps. But the situation transformed owing to the efforts of the U.S. Army, which installed the first operational two-way radios in planes during the WW1. Development began in 1915 at San Diego, and by 1916 technicians could send a radio telegraph over a distance of 140 miles; radio telegraph messages were also exchanged between planes in flight. Later in 1917, for the first time, a human voice was transmitted by radio from a plane in flight to an operator on the ground.
Countries involved in the war applied a complete force of industrial mass-production of weapons and ammunition, especially artillery shells. Mostly, women played a crucial role in this by working in munitions factories. This complete mobilization of a nation’s resources meant that not only the armies but also the economies of the warring nations were in competition.
Manned observation balloons floating high above the trenches were used as stationary reconnaissance points on the front lines, reporting enemy troop positions and directing artillery fire. Balloons commonly had a crew of two, each equipped with parachutes upon an enemy air attack on the flammable balloon, the crew would jump to safety. At the time, parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots in aircraft, and smaller versions would not be developed until the end of the war. Recognized for their value as observer platforms, observation balloons were important targets of enemy aircraft. To defend against air attack, they were highly protected by large concentrations of antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft.
Command and Control
In the early days of the war, commandos directed tactics from headquarters many miles from the front, with messages being carried back and forth by couriers on motorcycles. It soon came to mind that more immediate means of communication will be useful.
Radio Sets of the period were too heavy to carry into battle, and phone lines laid were quickly shattered. Runners, flashing lights, and mirrors were often frequently employed instead; dogs were also (though they were only used occasionally as troops tend to adopt them as pets and men would volunteer to go as runners in the dog’s place). There were also contact patrols (aircraft) that could relay messages between headquarters and forward positions, sometimes dropping their messages without landing.
Although poison gas accounted for only a small number of the deaths casualties in WW1, its effects were pervasive and devastating. Initially applied by the Germans during the Battle of Second Ypres in 1915, poisonous gas actually proved largely ineffective as a traditional weapon; its success depended not only on the type of gas and the sophistication of its delivery method but also often on the weather conditions on the day. However, poison gas became possibly the most important psychological weapon of the world war 1, armies spent much of their time and resources anticipating and guarding against terrifying death.
Although the concept of the Armoured Tanks had been suggested as early as the 1890s, it was the World War I that brought about its first major usage.
An instantly recognizable symbol of 20th Century warfare, the tank was developed in secret by the Allies during World War One. It was conceived of as a so-called “land-ship,” but a codename for the project had to be used.
To maintain the element of surprise, the Allies referred to these new war machines as “Water Carriers,” and then later simply as “Tanks.”
It won’t be off-balance to say or conclude that WW1 was the experimental lab for armored tanks, as we have witnessed the design of the tank has been refined and redeveloped a great deal during the last century, and almost every military army of a nation have one or more of tanks at their disposal.
Not every technology to come out of the war was designed to kill; after all, something had to be used to soak up all the blood. Cellucotton – the by-product of processed sugar cane – was first manufactured during the war for use as field bandages, being more absorbent, cheaper and more plentiful than surgical cotton. It wasn’t long before a few whip-smart nurses found that cellucotton made for a great disposable sanitary napkin, and in 1920 Kotex brought out its first commercial pad, freeing women everywhere from the drudgery of the reusable rag.
At the commencement of the world war 1, artillery was often cited in the front line to fire over open sights at enemy infantry. As the war rolled on, the following improvements were taken:
– The out of necessity devisement of the very first anti-craft war
– Development of Artillery sound ranging and flash spotting – for the location and eventual destruction of enemy batteries with the application of data derived from the sound of guns.
– The 1915 firing of first “box barrage”; this was the use of a three- or four-sided curtain of shell-fire to prevent the movement of enemy infantry
– The initial development of an Indirect counter battery.
– The perfection of creeping barrage. Etc
Submarines also became potent weapons. Although they had been around for years, it was during WWI that they began fulfilling their potential as a major threat. Unrestricted submarine warfare, in which German submarines torpedoed ships without warning. Finding avenues to outfit ships to detect submarines became a major goal for the allies. Researchers determined that allied ships and submarines could be outfitted with sensitive microphones that could detect engine noise from enemy submarines. These underwater microphones played an important part in combatting the submarine threat.
The war is over, its ramifications were far-reaching. Technologically, giant strides had been made in just about every corner that might come into play during war. But the costs had been dear, and the end only temporary. Death Casualties from “The Great War” have been estimated at 10,000,000, and the end of the war itself, the Treaty of Versailles and its embarrassing terms for Germany, laid the framework for World War II.